blockchain in accounting

In an Accounting system using Blockchain, all financial transactions are recorded on a shared digital ledger. This ledger is accessible to all participants within the network, eliminating the need for intermediaries and minimising the risk of data inconsistencies. Each transaction is time-stamped, encrypted, and linked to the previous transaction, creating an immutable and transparent chain of financial events. Blockchain is a distributed and decentralised digital ledger that securely records transactions across multiple computers. Unlike traditional ledgers managed by a single entity, Blockchain operates on a network of nodes, each maintaining a copy of the entire ledger. This decentralisation prevents any single party from dominating or corrupting the data, making the system more secure and fair.

Today’s audit technology opportunity

Blockchain technology makes transactions immutable, meaning they cannot be changed or deleted once validated by the public consensus and added to the Blockchain. With the advent of digital payments, we switched to digital receipts, which are easier to manipulate. Each block has a group of transactions linked in chronological order to form a chain. The connection between blocks is secured by cryptographic hashes – complex mathematical functions that generate a unique code for each block.

Supply Chain Management

According to Gan et al. (2021), the critical success factors in this context are the existence of a liquid secondary market, a minimum price-cost ratio of 2, a critical mass condition and the establishment of a maximum number of tokens. Gonzalez (2020) shows that peer-to-peer (P2P) lending decisions are influenced by the gender of borrowers and herding behavior. First, this SLR provides a clear picture of the state of accounting research on blockchain. The engagement of academics and practitioners with the potential of blockchain and technological advancements is growing but limited (Schmitz and Leoni, 2019). This study aims to review the academic literature on the utilization of blockchain in accounting practice and research to identify potential opportunities for further scientific investigation and to provide a framework for how accounting practices are impacted by blockchain. As blockchains allow recording and settlement of transactions to occur at the same time as the transaction itself, auditors can obtain data in real-time and in a consistent, recurring format.

Blockchain Smart Contracts, Part 1: Introduction for Accounting and Auditing Professionals

blockchain in accounting

Thus, cryptos fall under the accounting rules for “Intangible assets with indefinite useful lives” (IAS 38.107), so they cannot be amortized but only impaired. Furthermore, if an active market exists, then intangible assets can be valued at fair value (IAS 38.75) (Procházka, 2018; Morozova et al., 2020; Beigman et al., 2021). If buying and selling cryptocurrencies was part of the ordinary business of an entity, then it would be possible to account for cryptocurrencies as inventory. 9 states, “Inventories shall be measured at the lower of cost and net realizable value,” and if a company is a broker-trader, then it can value cryptos at fair value less cost to sell (Procházka, 2018; Morozova et al., 2020). Figure 2 represents our steps using a PRISMA diagram (Page et al., 2021), which we adjusted to enhance its fit for a qualitative systematic review.

  1. For instance, Venkatesh and Davis (2000) discovered a positive correlation between PEU and PU in their study on IT adoption within organizations.
  2. Blockchain can improve information timelines and accounting reliability because of its decentralization and transparency, but it will also require new competencies, attention to scalability and accounting standard reconciliation.
  3. Plus, understanding the basics of blockchain will help you follow future updates and be more prepared.
  4. Whether you are a beginner or looking to advance your knowledge on Blockchain, The Knowledge Academy’s diverse courses and informative blogs have you covered.
  5. Blockchain technology uses various methods, such as encryption, digital signatures, and cryptographic keys, to protect data from unauthorised access and manipulation.

The data requirements would be large compared to a traditional system and is a concern that needs to be addressed if blockchain is to enjoy widespread adoption. It is likely that many enterprises will try to harness this new technology and create value with it. A large amount of attention and capital currently is being allocated toward virtually anything related to blockchain technology.

blockchain in accounting

PEU plays a crucial role in shaping individuals’ attitudes by affecting their perception of how seamlessly they can adopt and integrate technology into their practices. Exploring technology integration in education sheds light on the relationship between PEU and ATU. For example, Teo (2011) investigated e-learning platform implementation in higher education and found a positive correlation between PEU and ATU. Likewise, Al-Hattami (2023) discovered that PEU significantly affects individuals’ ATU toward adopting technology in accounting education. These findings suggest that individuals who perceive technology as easy to use are more likely to have favorable attitudes toward incorporating it into their educational practices.

It promises to provide better data quality, increase financial reporting transparency, and provide real-time reporting in an environment that increases trust and lessens the opportunity for fraud. CPAs will need to acquire a working knowledge of the blockchain and smart contracts to navigate in this new triple-entry accounting environment. This emerging and disruptive technology also promises to alter the accounting professional’s perspective, from transaction-focused to analytical.

In the original definition, blockchain is defined as a dispersed ledger of chained and consecutive cryptographic blocks, and each block is registered on peer to peer networks (McAliney and Ang, 2019). The nodes also work in the same direction and are validated by the network’s other components (Rien Agustin and Susilowati, 2019). The bibliometrix R package and biblioshiny app, widely used in the literature by several studies (Secundo et al., 2020), are used to analyze the bibliographic data for the first coding group (Aria and Cuccurullo, 2017). Finally, for coding analysis, we use the Deedose web application particularly suitable for ensuring that the inter-rater reliability (IRR) links with the degree of consistency in how the code system is applied (Talanquer, 2014).

For instance, as in Secinaro and Calandra’s (2020) and Zaheer et al.’s (2019) studies, our study offers broad perspectives on past research methodologies to address future research challenges. Besides, our analysis focuses on blockchain business processes in the field under study and not just applications (Casino et al., 2019). Still, we analyze the characteristics of blockchain while providing indications of the definitions and technical structures most used in the literature.

In machine learning, there are many different text mining techniques, each designed to suit different types of data and different end purposes (see Wanner et al., 2014 for a comprehensive review). We used a Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model, which is well-suited to providing a systematic and non-biased method of investigating a body of literature (Cai et al., 2019; El-Haj et al., 2019; Black et al., 2020; Bentley et al., 2018; Fligstein et al., 2017). El-Haj et al. (2019, p. 266) explain that LDA leads to “wider generalizability, greater objectivity, improved replicability, enhanced statistical power, and scope for identifying ‘hidden’ linguistic features”. Research shows LDA to be a relevant and useful tool for working with both big and small literature corpora (e.g. Li, 2010; Asmussen and Møller, 2019; El-Haj et al., 2019).

Researchers should test new business models in a market and evaluate transaction efficiency and the degree of novelty in the transaction’s content, structure, steering, resource use, network effects and value creation for stakeholders. Researchers can analyse the efficiency of blockchain implementation in different areas and focus on “the benefits of the first-mover advantage” (Karajovic et al., 2019, p. 322). In the future, it will be important to monitor the progress of the implementation of blockchain in different types of organisations (Gietzmann and Grossetti, 2019). Fig 6 suggests that data tampering rates for different financial accounting information-sharing models exhibit a decreasing trend across the entire range of iterations from 100 to 600 times. Specifically, TESM experiences a reduction in data tampering rates during this period but still maintains a relatively high level.

Additionally, no past papers offer a bibliometric with in-depth coding analysis based on the evidence, aims and future research ideas of the previous literature. Our analysis considers Blockchain and accounting, or auditing, or accountability as primary keywords. In a critical study published in the AAAJ, Dumay et al. (2018) state that scientific production in accounting includes and is extended to auditing and accountability. Furthermore, all researchers have benefited from Massaro et al. (2016)’s research strategy. Considering that we are analyzing an emerging and continually evolving field of research, we included all sources in the database, including peer-reviewed articles and conferences as sources of knowledge (Easterby-Smith et al., 2012). We used Scopus, a multidisciplinary database that includes the study of several data-suited information science researchers (Okoli and Schabram, 2010).

This variability might affect the consistency and generalizability of the findings, especially if teaching assistants have different experience levels or teaching styles. These limitations could influence the methodology’s assumptions and conclusions. For instance, the impact of OS and teaching assistants on outcomes might be more complex than the analysis captures. The study may not fully explore how these factors interact with other variables.

In the agricultural supply chain, blockchain could increase traceability, auditability, immutability and provenance (Kamble et al., 2020). Parmentola et al. (2022) conclude that blockchain could create a more sustainable supply chain in line with the sustainable development goals. Cai (2021) cites three blockchain systems, but these cases were studied when they were within initial commercial rather than working phases. Due to distributed ledger technology, blockchain technology eliminates the need for entering accounting information into multiple databases and potentially removes the need for auditors to reconcile disparate ledgers.

In a data ecosystem that progressively integrates a nearly infinite set of initially disconnected data, the ability to integrate coherently and apply software agents will be of high importance. With an almost infinite supply of new data, novel methods of measuring business new politicians use of twitter can increase fundraising, attract new donors performance will inevitably emerge (Cho et al., 2019). Understanding how blockchain distributes the power of transaction verification and how data are stored and managed to prevent any unauthorised data changes in ecosystems are also key questions in need of investigation.